Differential action of iodine on mitochondria from human tumoral- and extra-tumoral tissue in inducing the release of apoptogenic proteins.
Upadhyay G1, Singh R, Sharma R, Balapure AK, Godbole MM.
Department of Endocrinology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Raebareli Road, Lucknow 226014, India.
Iodide is actively concentrated in the thyroid gland for thyroid hormone biosynthesis. Excess iodine has been observed to induce apoptosis in thyrocytes and mammary cells. The mechanism of iodine induced apoptosis is poorly understood. Among various cell organelles, mitochondria is known to provide conducive environment for the organification of iodine, i.e. iodination of different proteins. Mitochondria also play a central role in execution of apoptosis. To study the role of mitochondria in iodine induced apoptosis, we investigated the direct interaction of iodine and human breast mitochondria vis-a-vis its role in the initiation of apoptosis in vitro. We observed that mitochondria isolated from the tumor (TT) and extra-tumoral tissue (ET) of human breast display significant uptake of iodine. Mitochondrial proteins were observed to be predominantly iodinated in ET but not in TT mitochondria. Treatment with iodine showed an increase in mitochondrial permeability transition of TT and decrease in ET. Iodine induced released factor(s) other than cytochrome c from tumor mitochondria initiate(s) apoptosis in vitro, while those from ET mitochondria were non-apoptogenic in nature. To our knowledge, this is first report demonstrating that iodine acts differentially on mitochondria of tumor and extratumoral origin to release apoptogenic proteins from TT and has a protective effect on ET.